heart valve replacement is a surgical procedure that is performed to replace a valve that is not functioning correctly. The heart has four valves that direct blood flow through the heart in one direction. Pressure changes on either side of each valve cause flaps to open and close with each heartbeat to regulate blood flow.
There are 4 Heart Valves:
Why is it required?
A heart valve replacement is required when the valve or valves are beyond repair due to the extent of damage caused by the following:
Damaged valves due to:
- Rheumatic Fever
- Bacterial Infection
- Calcific Degeneration
Degeneration from the normal ageing process
Abnormally formed valves due to birth defect
Two types of defects occur due to these diseases:
Stenosis- the valve does not open completely, forcing the blood to flow through a narrowed opening
Regurgitation- the valve does not completely close and the blood flows backwards through the valve
What is done during Valve Replacement surgery?
The Valve Replacement Surgery is done under General Anaethesia using a Heart-Lung Machine. The heart is accessed by opening up the rib cage through the Sternum. Whole of the blood is directed through the Heart-Lung Machine to maintain Oxygenation and perfusion of the whole body. The Valve is reached by cutting the heart and is replaced either by Mechanical Valve or a Biological Valve.
It is made from materials such as plastic, carbon, or metal. Mechanical valves are strong, and they last a long time. Because blood tends to stick to mechanical valves and create blood clots, patients with these valves will need to take blood-thinning medicines (called anticoagulants) for the rest of their lives.
They are made from animal tissue or taken from the human tissue of a donated heart. Sometimes, a patient's own tissue can be used for valve replacement. Patients with biological valves usually do not need to take blood-thinning medicines. These valves are not as strong as mechanical valves, though, and they may need to be replaced every 10 years or so. These valves are used most often in elderly patients.
The goals of a Valve Replacement surgery include:
Lengthen and improve the quality of life.
Maintain an adequate supply of oxygen-rich blood flowing through your heart.
Reduce the possibility of damaging your heart and blood vessels
Lowering the risk of a heart attack (in some patients, such as those who have diabetes)
Give you the best possible option for returning a healthy and active life.
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heart valve replacement surgery |
in India | Mumbai